Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. source
Buddha (about 560 - about 480 BC, according to other sources, 623-544 BC), the founder of Buddhism.
He was born in the Indian city of Kapilavastu. Buddha is the sacred name of Siddhartha (Siddhartha) Gautama, the son of the Indian king Sudgoda in the Shakya tribe. According to legend, this royal son, having received a gorgeous upbringing, left the palace and family for 29 years and went off on a distant journey.
Shakyamuni (Sanskrit "hermit from the Shakyas") - this name he obtained through the wanderings - settled in the desert and after many years of reflection he found answers to the questions that tormented him. Since that time, he started to be known as the Buddha (Skt., "Enlightened", "discovered, truth").
The cornerstone of his schooling includes "four truths":
The preaching of the Buddha has been directed against sacrifice, the division of Indian society into castes. The closest thing to salvation is the poor and weak. The idea of equality brought the people, therefore Buddhism became prevalent.
But soon the teaching was distorted. The Buddha did not recognize the supreme deity, and his followers introduced the demons, then the gods, and eventually made the Buddha himself to the rank of the supreme god.
Buddhism became the state religion in India, and from there spread to Ceylon, Afghanistan and Turkestan, then to Hindustan, China (where it was called "pho"), Japan, Tibet and Mongolia.